Our Mission

The core mission of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS) is to utilize the most advanced and effective exam preparation strategies available to provide CCS students with the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to achieve the highest score possible on the New Jersey Law Enforcement Examination (LEE) and the New Jersey State Correction Officer Recruit Examination. The dedicated staff at Critical Concepts & Strategies is committed to utilizing the most advanced research and techniques to provide each and every student with the benefits of Dr. Paprota’s more than 24 years of exam preparation experience. From the design of the class materials and instruction to the use of advanced Scantron scoring equipment and sophisticated scoring software, every aspect of the CCS program is geared toward student success. In-class, formal examinations provide each student with a personal understanding of his or her individual strengths and weaknesses, while the take-home practice materials and practice exams along with special refresher sessions ensure that each student fully understands the course material. Dr. Paprota leaves no room for misunderstanding, so each CCS student reaches his or her maximum potential.


Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D.
Founder of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep)

As the premier entry-level law enforcement exam preparation company in New Jersey, Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS) was founded by Dr. David A. Paprota to provide New Jersey law enforcement candidates with the most effective exam preparation training possible. Dr. Paprota serves an active chief of police with over 26 years of law enforcement experience. Dr. Paprota has over 24 years of formal experience training candidates for the New Jersey Civil Service Commission (NJCSC) Law Enforcement Examination (LEE) and the New Jersey State Correction Officer Recruit Examination. His formal research and education at Seton Hall University specifically focused on three-factor psychometric testing which is the form of testing utilized in entry-level law enforcement. Dr. Paprota’s formal educational credentials, experience in exam preparation, and success in training law enforcement candidates are unmatched in New Jersey.

As the Executive Director of CCS, Dr. Paprota ensures that only the most effective educational techniques and materials are utilized in the entry-level law enforcement examination program. Only the most respected and credentialed instructors are permitted to teach a CCS course. Dr. Paprota has personally trained over 15,000 law enforcement candidates and incumbents in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York over the past 24 years.

CCS utilizes the most contemporary and sophisticated technology to enhance the learning experience of each student. In-class exams are formally scored utilizing sophisticated Scantron scoring equipment and a proprietary software-based scoring system developed by Dr. Paprota. This allows for the production of an individualized scoring report for each student. CCS students receive an individualized scoring report for both a Preliminary Diagnostic Examination administered at the beginning of the program as well as for the formal, Final Examination administered at the conclusion of the program. As a result, each student is keenly aware of his or her strengths and weaknesses to better guide the student’s studies as he or she prepares for the actual examination. This important aspect of the course further enhances the learning experience provided through the well-developed in-class instruction, PowerPoint presentations, very focused course materials, and take-home practice examinations.


Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D.
Biographical Information

Dr. David A. Paprota began his law enforcement career in 1989 working as a special officer with the Beach Haven Police Department. He attended the Ocean County Police Academy, Class #54, in 1990 where he graduated #1 overall in his class. He joined the Tinton Falls Police Department in 1991 after finishing #1 on both the written and the physical open-competitive examinations. He transferred to the Lacey Township Police Department in 1992.

Dr. Paprota was promoted to Sergeant in 1998 after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey. He was then promoted to Lieutenant in 2001 after again achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey. Likewise, after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in 2005. Dr. Paprota was ultimately promoted to the rank of Chief of Police in March of 2013.

Chief Paprota earned a Doctoral Degree, Ed.D., from Seton Hall University in 2012, a post-graduate Educational Specialist Degree, Ed.S., from Seton Hall University in 2008, a Master of Arts Degree, M.A., in Supervision and Administration from Seton Hall University in 1999, and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice in 1996. Dr. Paprota is a graduate of the West Point Command and Leadership Program; he is a Certified Public Manager (CPM) through Fairleigh Dickinson University; and a member of Mensa as well as the National Honor Society. He is a published author and has produced a number of police training manuals.

Dr. Paprota has distinguished himself in the world of testing throughout the years by not only achieving the highest examination scores within his department on his promotional examinations, but he further distinguished himself in achieving the highest examination scores throughout the State of New Jersey for each of his promotional examinations. Furthermore, Dr. Paprota has conducted focused job-task-analyses as well as authored and administered promotional examination processes for multiple, non-civil service, municipal police departments. Assessment of law enforcement personnel through written and oral testing has been a passion of Dr. Paprota’s for over 24 years.

In 2000 through 2012, Dr. Paprota served as the vice-president and co-owner of the largest and most successful law enforcement training company in the State of New Jersey. With over 24 years of training experience, after training over 15,000 candidates, Dr. Paprota has decided to focus exclusively on entry-level law enforcement training with the formation of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS). Candidates who do their research will find that CCS is the top entry-level law enforcement training program in New Jersey.