NJ-LEE results are now available online at the NJCSC website. The 99′s are pouring in for CCS. The next NJ LEE cycle is expected in 2018. Chief’s Exam (NCJOSI) prep is now available thru CCS Test Prep.

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Welcome to CCS Test Prep

Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep) is an exam preparation company focused exclusively on preparing prospective law enforcement candidates for their entry-level written examination. The company founder, Dr. David A. Paprota, has over 25 years experience in preparing entry-level law enforcement candidates for multi-factor examinations. Dr. Paprota’s strategies and teaching methods provide each student with the greatest likelihood of achieving success on these critical and competitive examinations. Passing the exam is simply not good enough; CCS Test Prep prepares candidates to achieve exceptional scores on both the EB Jacobs Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) and/or the I/O Solutions (IOS) Criminal Justice Officer Selection Inventory (NCJOSI v1 & v2). These two separate examinations are the most common competitive entry-level law enforcement examinations administered throughout the nation. CCS students greatly benefit from Dr. Paprota’s advanced knowledge of multi-factor psychometric assessment. Beyond the on point instruction, CCS students receive individualized feedback through formal assessments which are scored utilizing sophisticated algorithms and weighted scales that simulate the actual scoring process.  Please utilize the “Courses” drop-down menu and select the jurisdiction for which you are testing for more information.

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Click Here to be added to the CCS email list for updates regarding the courses offered by CCS for the EB Jacobs Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) and/or the I/O Solutions (IOS) Criminal Justice Officer Selection Inventory (NCJOSI v1 & v2). These two examinations are the most common multi-factor, psychometric assessments used nationwide for competitive entry-level law enforcement testing.

Dr. Paprota is the foremost expert on multi-factor, entry-level exam preparation. If you have any questions, do not hesitate to use the “Contact CCS Test Prep” on the main menu bar above to submit your question(s). Dr. Paprota will personally respond to your inquiry within 72 hours.

Entry-Level Testing

Throughout the Unites States, law enforcement and corrections officer testing is extremely competitive. Depending upon the specific jurisdiction, open competitive tests are intermittently offered every one to five years apart. This leaves very little opportunity for an aspiring candidate to compete for a position in law enforcement. The entry-level written examination serves as the competitive gateway to a law enforcement career. Merely passing the exam is not good enough. The extended time period between exam administrations contributes to the necessity of properly preparing for such a limited opportunity to achieve a top score and get hired. Proper preparation can provide a candidate with a very high score, and ultimately, a career in law enforcement. Preparation increases the likelihood of success, while failing to properly prepare can effectively shut a candidate out for several years.

Utilize the “Courses” drop-down option from the main menu bar above to select the jurisdiction for which you are interested in testing. If your jurisdiction is not listed, please use the “Contact CCS Test Prep” option to inquire. CCS Test Prep specializes in training candidates for the EB Jacobs Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) and/or the I/O Solutions (IOS) Criminal Justice Officer Selection Inventory (NCJOSI v1 & v2). These multi-factor examinations are the most commonly utilized entry-level competitive assessments throughout the country. Both of the test-writing companies recognize the importance of candidate preparation prior to sitting for these competitive examinations. It is expected that those who are serious about a future career in law enforcement will put the time and effort into enhancing their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA’s) before sitting for the competitive exam.

Future candidates can also “subscribe” to the CCS Test Prep blog postings by selecting the “Latest Testing News” option from the menu bar and then enter an email address in the subscription field available on the right margin of the page.

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Testing News

EB Jacob’s Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) – The national testing vendor, EB Jacobs, unveiled their most updated version of the Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) during the most recent statewide, entry-level law enforcement testing cycle in New Jersey. This version will undoubtedly be utilized around the country in years to come. The State of New Jersey utilized EB Jacobs as the vendor to write and administer the 2016/2017 entry-level law enforcement examination to over 40,000 applicants. The new version of the LEAB included 48 cognitive abilities questions (Part 1); 173 trait assessment statements (Part 2); and 108 bio-data questions (Part 3). This is a significant increase in number of questions included on the LEAB over the other versions commonly administered. On the new exam, candidates were exposed to additional factors/scales. The additional factors/scales posed a special challenge for those test-takers who were unprepared. The 329 question Law Enforcement Aptitude Battery (LEAB) is a multi-factor psychometric test that has proven to be the most comprehensive, valid, and reliable entry-level law enforcement exam available nationally. This is the exact competitive assessment which served as the basis for much of Dr. Paprota’s formal research. Proper, on point, preparation is more important than ever in the very competitive environment of sitting for a sophisticated, multi-factor, scored, psychometric assessment.

I/O Solution’s National Criminal Justice Officer Selection Inventory (NCJOSI) – Changes have also been implemented through another test-writing vendor, I/O Solutions (IOS), in their expanded version of the National Criminal Justice Officer Selection Inventory (NCJOSI) commonly referred to as Version 2. This expanded exam includes 80 cognitive questions (Part 1) and 120 trait assessment statements (Part 2). The 200 question NCJOSI(v2) is a very controversial examination. Unfortunately, with this special type of examination, it is recognized that 1 in 7 ideal candidates will receive a false positive indicating a lack of integrity on the exam resulting in an undeserved failure or very low score. For this reason, some states have outlawed this form of testing for entry-level employment. Proper, on point, preparation is more important than ever in the very competitive and seemingly unfair process.

Our Mission

The core mission of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS) is to utilize the most advanced and effective exam preparation strategies available to provide CCS students with the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to achieve the highest score possible on their entry-level law enforcement examination. The dedicated staff at Critical Concepts & Strategies is committed to utilizing the most advanced research and techniques to provide each and every student with the benefits of Dr. Paprota’s more than 25 years of exam preparation experience. From the design of the class materials and instruction to the use of advanced Scantron scoring equipment and sophisticated scoring software, every aspect of the CCS program is geared toward student success. In-class, formal examinations provide each student with a personal understanding of his or her individual strengths and weaknesses, while the take-home practice materials and practice exams along with special refresher sessions ensure that each student fully understands the course material. Dr. Paprota leaves no room for misunderstanding, so each CCS student reaches his or her maximum potential.


Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D.

Founder of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep)

Round Border Uniformed Headshot w NameAs the premier entry-level law enforcement exam preparation company, Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS) was founded by Dr. David A. Paprota to provide law enforcement candidates with the most effective exam preparation training possible. Dr. Paprota served as a chief of police with over 27 years of law enforcement experience and formally retired from law enforcement in 2016. Dr. Paprota has over 25 years of formal experience training candidates for the sophisticated, multi-factor psychometric examinations used for entry-level law enforcement. His formal research and education at Seton Hall University specifically focused on multi-factor psychometric testing which is the form of testing utilized in entry-level law enforcement. Dr. Paprota’s formal educational credentials, experience in exam preparation, and success in training law enforcement candidates are unmatched in the exam preparation industry.

As the Executive Director of CCS, Dr. Paprota ensures that only the most effective educational techniques and materials are utilized in the entry-level law enforcement examination program. Only the most respected and credentialed instructors are permitted to teach a CCS course. Dr. Paprota has personally trained over 17,000 law enforcement candidates and incumbents in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York over the past 25 years.

CCS utilizes the most contemporary and sophisticated technology to enhance the learning experience of each student. In-class exams are formally scored utilizing sophisticated Scantron scoring equipment and a proprietary software-based scoring system developed by Dr. Paprota. This allows for the production of an individualized scoring report for each student. CCS students receive an individualized scoring report for both a Preliminary Diagnostic Examination administered at the beginning of the program as well as for the formal, Final Examination administered at the conclusion of the program. As a result, each student is keenly aware of his or her strengths and weaknesses to better guide the student’s studies as he or she prepares for the actual examination. This important aspect of the course further enhances the learning experience provided through the well-developed in-class instruction, PowerPoint presentations, very focused course materials, and take-home practice examinations.

Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D.

Biographical Information

Dr. David A. Paprota began his law enforcement career in 1989 working as a special officer with the Beach Haven Police Department in New Jersey. He attended the Ocean County Police Academy, Class #54, in 1990 where he graduated #1 overall in his class. He joined the Tinton Falls Police Department in 1991 after finishing #1 on both the written and the physical open-competitive examinations. He transferred to the Lacey Township Police Department in 1992.

Dr. Paprota was promoted to Sergeant in 1998 after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey. He was then promoted to Lieutenant in 2001 after again achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey. Likewise, after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in 2005. Dr. Paprota was ultimately promoted to the rank of Chief of Police in March of 2013.

Chief Paprota earned a Doctoral Degree, Ed.D., from Seton Hall University in 2012; a post-graduate Educational Specialist Degree, Ed.S., from Seton Hall University in 2008; a Master of Arts Degree, M.A., in Supervision and Administration from Seton Hall University in 1999; and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice in 1996. Dr. Paprota is a graduate of the West Point Command and Leadership Program; he is a Certified Public Manager (CPM) through Fairleigh Dickinson University; and a member of Mensa as well as the National Honor Society. He is a published author and has produced a number of police training manuals.

Dr. Paprota has distinguished himself in the world of testing throughout the years by not only achieving the highest examination scores within his department on his promotional examinations, but he further distinguished himself in achieving the highest examination scores throughout the State of New Jersey for each of his promotional examinations. Furthermore, Dr. Paprota has conducted focused job-task-analyses as well as authored and administered promotional examination processes for multiple, non-civil service, municipal police departments. Assessment of law enforcement personnel through written and oral testing has been a passion of Dr. Paprota’s for over 25 years.

In 2000 through 2012, Dr. Paprota served as the vice-president and co-owner of the largest and most successful law enforcement training company in the State of New Jersey. With over 25 years of training experience and after training over 17,000 candidates, Dr. Paprota is now focusing exclusively on entry-level law enforcement training with the formation of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS). In 2016, Dr. Paprota formally retired from law enforcement to focus on the continuing research and development necessary to maintain the top entry-level preparation program possible. Candidates who do their research will find that CCS is by far the best entry-level law enforcement training program.

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Manahawkin – Ocean County (Atlantic County Area) | 3-Evening Seminar

Holiday Inn Hotel – 151 Rt. 72, Manahawkin, NJ – View Location

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Mahwah – Bergen County | 2-Day Seminar

Bergen County Police Academy – 281 Campgaw Rd, Mahwah, NJ- View Location

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Clark – Union County (Essex & Middlesex Area) | 3-Evening Seminar

Holiday Inn Hotel – 36 Valley Rd, Clark, NJ- View Location

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Tinton Falls-Eatontown (Monmouth County) | 3-Evening Seminar

DoubleTree Hotel – 700 Hope Rd, Tinton Falls, NJ – View Location

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Totowa – Passaic County (Essex & Hudson County Area) | 2-Day Seminar

Holiday Inn Hotel – 1 Route 46 West, Totowa, NJ – View Location

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Princeton – Mercer County (Trenton Area) | 2-Day Seminar

DoubleTree Hotel -  4355 Rt 1 at Ridge Rd, Princeton, NJ – View Location

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Toms River – Ocean County | 3-Evening Seminar

TR Hotel – 290 Rt. 37 East, Toms River, NJ – View Location

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Parsippany – Morris County | 2-Day Seminar

Parsippany Holiday Inn – 707 Rt 46 E, Parsippany, NJ – View Location

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Mt. Laurel – Camden County | 3-Evening Seminar

Mt. Laurel Wyndham Hotel – 1111 Rt 73, Mt. Laurel, NJ – View Location

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Mahwah – Bergen County | 2-Day Seminar

Bergen County Police Academy – 281 Campgaw Rd, Mahwah, NJ – View Location

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Mahwah – Bergen County | 2-Day Seminar

Bergen County Police Academy – 281 Campgaw Rd, Mahwah, NJ – View Location

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Tinton Falls-Eatontown (Monmouth County) | 3-Evening Seminar

DoubleTree Hotel – 700 Hope Rd, Tinton Falls, NJ – View Location

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