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About Us – CCS Test Prep® 2020-03-06T12:41:51-05:00

Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep®)
Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D.
Chief of Police (Ret.)
Executive Director & Lead Instructor

As the premier entry-level law enforcement exam preparation company, Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep®) was founded by Dr. David A. Paprota, Ed.D. (Chief of Police, Ret.) to provide law enforcement candidates with the most effective exam preparation training possible. Dr. Paprota served as a Chief of Police with 28 years of law enforcement experience and retired from law enforcement in August of 2016. Chief Paprota has over 25 years of formal experience training candidates for their competitive, entry-level law enforcement examinations. His formal research and education at Seton Hall University specifically focused on multi-factor psychometric testing which is the form of testing utilized throughout the country in entry-level law enforcement. Chief Paprota’s formal educational credentials, experience in exam preparation, and success in training law enforcement candidates are unmatched in the exam preparation field.

As the Founder and Executive Director of CCS Test Prep®, Chief Paprota ensures that only the most effective educational techniques and materials are utilized in the entry-level law enforcement exam preparation programs. Only the most respected and credentialed instructors are permitted to teach along side Chief Paprota in a CCS Test Prep® course. Chief Paprota has personally trained over 17,000 successful law enforcement candidates and incumbents over the past 25 years.

CCS Test Prep® utilizes the most contemporary and sophisticated technology to enhance the learning experience of each student. Exams are formally scored utilizing sophisticated Scantron™ scoring equipment and a proprietary software-based scoring system developed by Dr. Paprota. This allows for the production of several individualized scoring reports for each student. CCS Test Prep® students receive an individualized scoring report for both a Preliminary Diagnostic Examination administered at the beginning of the program as well as the formal, Final Examination administered at the conclusion of the main program. As a result, each student is keenly aware of his or her strengths and weaknesses to better guide the student’s studies as he or she prepares for the actual examination. This important aspect of the course further enhances the learning experience provided through the well-developed instruction, visual presentations, very focused course materials, and practice examinations.

Chief David A. Paprota, Ed.D. (Ret.)
Biographical Information

Chief David A. Paprota began his law enforcement career in 1989 working as a special officer with the Beach Haven Police Department in New Jersey. He attended the Ocean County Police Academy, Class #54, in 1990 where he graduated #1 overall in his class. He joined the Tinton Falls (NJ) Police Department in 1991 after finishing #1 on both the written and the physical open-competitive examination. He transferred to the Lacey Township (NJ) Police Department in 1992.

Chief Paprota was promoted to Sergeant in 1998 after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey (over 2,500 candidates tested in 1996). He was then promoted to Lieutenant in 2001 after again achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey. Likewise, after achieving the highest exam score in the State of New Jersey, he was promoted to the rank of Captain in 2005. Chief Paprota assumed command of the Lacey Township Police Department in 2012 and was ultimately promoted to the rank of Chief of Police in March of 2013 after the civil service commission and the municipality “waived” the testing process. Chief Paprota officially retired from the police department on August 1, 2016, to continue his formal research and to focus on furthering Critical Concepts & Strategies, LLC – CCS Test Prep®.

Chief Paprota earned a Doctoral Degree, Ed.D., from Seton Hall University in 2012; a post-graduate Educational Specialist Degree, Ed.S., from Seton Hall University in 2008; a Master of Arts Degree, M.A., in Supervision and Administration from Seton Hall University in 1999; and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice in 1996. Dr. Paprota is a graduate of the West Point Command and Leadership Program; he is a Certified Public Manager (CPM) through Fairleigh Dickinson University; and a member of Mensa as well as the National Honor Society. He is a published author and has produced a number of police training manuals.

Chief Paprota has distinguished himself in the world of testing throughout the years by not only achieving the highest examination scores within his department on his promotional examinations, but he further distinguished himself in achieving the highest examination scores throughout the State of New Jersey for each of his promotional examinations. Furthermore, Chief Paprota has conducted focused job-task-analyses as well as authored and administered promotional examination processes for multiple, non-civil service, municipal police departments. Assessment of law enforcement personnel through written and oral testing has been a passion of Chief Paprota’s for over 25 years.

From 2000 through 2012, Chief Paprota served as the vice-president and co-owner of the largest and most successful law enforcement training company in the State of New Jersey. With over 25 years of training experience, after training over 17,000 candidates, Chief Paprota decided to focus exclusively on entry-level law enforcement training with the formation of Critical Concepts & Strategies (CCS Test Prep®). Candidates who do their research will find that CCS Test Prep® is the top entry-level law enforcement training program available.


Chief Troy E. Oswald, M.A. (Ret.)
Senior Instructor

Troy E. Oswald has over 27 years of police experience and served as the Chief of the City of Paterson Police Department in New Jersey through January of 2020. Chief Oswald holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice from Rutgers University and a Master of Arts Degree in Education from Seton Hall University. He has been an adjunct professor since 1996 and has taught in several colleges and universities; including Seton Hall University, Passaic County Community College, and Fairleigh Dickinson University.

Chief Oswald is currently a New Jersey Police Training Commission (PTC) certified police instructor. He has been teaching criminal law, constitutional law and other specialized law enforcement topics to experienced law enforcement officers as well as academy recruits since 1994. He is known for being a dynamic presenter with an extensive knowledge of the topics he teaches.

In addition to preparing students for the cognitive component of entry-level law enforcement exams, Chief Oswald specializes in conducting interview preparation for candidates as they advance in the selection process. For more than 20 years, Chief Oswald has been conducting oral board preparation for candidates ranging from entry-level all of the way through to Chief of Police. His research and proven techniques have made the difference with candidates achieving perfect scores in very competitive scored oral board processes.   

Chief Oswald is a respected expert in the field of standardized promotional and entry-level testing. He holds the distinction of achieving a perfect score on a promotional examination which is a testament to his practical and advanced knowledge of law enforcement testing. His years of experience in preparing candidates for both entry-level and promotional law enforcement testing is a benefit to all who have the privilege of attending a course taught by Mr. Oswald.

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